It is estimated that in the early 1800s, only about 3% of the world’s one billion people lived in cities. Until this time, a vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture on small farms. Today, in a world of more than 7 billion people, over half of the population resides in urban areas and a shrinking minority are small farmers. Rapid urban population growth has been concentrated in marginal and peripheral areas of cities, many of which are slums. Urban poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, and malnutrition are growing dangers, particularly in developing countries.
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